Mechanical Properties

Mechanical Properties of Materials

Mechanical properties are properties that are associated with the ability of a metal to resist loads. They heavily influence the characteristics of a metal.

The following are some of the important mechanical properties of a metal:

  • Elasticity
  • Plasticity
  • Ductility
  • Toughness
  • Malleability
  • Strength
  • Stiffness
  • Creep
  • Resilience
  • Hardness

Elasticity:

Whenever an external force is applied on a metal, it deforms. Elasticity is the property by virtue of which a metal regains its original shape when the external force applied on it is removed.

Plasticity:

Plasticity is the property by which a metal retains its deformation permanently, when the external force applied on it is removed.

Examples: forming, forging, hammering

Ductility:

Ductility is the property by which a metal can be drawn into thin wires. It is determined by percentage elongation and percentage reduction in area of a metal.

Toughness:

When a huge external force is applied on a metal, the metal will experience fracture. Toughness is the ability of a metal to resist fracture.

Malleability:

It is the property by which a metal can be rolled into thin sheets. Highly malleable metals (like Mild Steel) are extensively used in making sheet metals.

Strength:

When external forces are applied on a metal, breaking (brittle metal) or yielding (ductile metal) may occur. Strength is the property of a metal by which it resists external force without breaking or yielding.

Stiffness:

When an external force is applied on a metal, it develops an internal resistance. The internal resistance developed per unit area is called stress. Stiffness is the ability of a metal to resist deformation under stress.

Creep:

When a metal is subjected to a constant load (below its yield point), at high temperature, for a prolonged period of time, it undergoes a permanent deformation. This tendency of the metal is called creep.

Resilience:

Resilience is the ability of a metal to absorb energy and resist soft and impact load.

Hardness:

Hardness is the ability of a metal to resist permanent change of shape caused by an external force.

Questions and Answers

  1. The strength is the ability of a material to resist
    Answer : externally applied forces with breakdown or yielding
  2. The ability of a material to resist fracture due to high impact loads is called
    Answer : Toughness
  3. The property of a material which enables it to retain the deformation permanently, is called
    Answer : Plasticity
  4. The ductility is the property of a material due to which it
    Answer : can be drawn into wires
  5. The property of a material necessary of forgings, in stamping images on coins and ornamental work is
    Answer : Plasticity
  6. The property of a material essential for spring materials is
    Answer : Resilience
  7. The property of a material due to which it breaks with little permanent distortion is called
    Answer : Brittleness
  8. The hardness is the property of a material due to which it
    Answer : Can cut another metal
  9. The ability of a material to absorb energy in the plastic range is called
    Answer : Resilience
  10. The malleability is the property of a material by virtue of which a material
    Answer : can be rolled or hammered into thin sheets
  11. The stiffness is the ability of a material to resist
    Answer : Deformation under stress
  12. The property of a material which enables it to resist fracture due to high impact loads, is called
    Answer : Toughness
  13. The plasticity is the property of a material which enables it to
    Answer : retain deformation produced under load permanently
  14. The property of a material which enables it to be drawn into wires with the application of tensile force, is called
    Answer : Ductility
  15. The elasticity is the property of a material which enables it to
    Answer : regain its original shape after deformation when the external force are removed
  16. The property of a material by virtue of which a body returns to its original, shape after removal of the load is called
    Answer : Elasticity

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *