Arc Length in Arc Welding

It is the straight distance between the electrode tip and the job surface when an arc is formed.

Arc Length in Welding
Arc Length in Welding

There are three types of arc length

  • Normal
  • Long
  • Short

1. Normal arc length

Normal Arc Length in Welding
Normal Arc Length in Welding

The correct arc length or normal arc length is approximately equal to the diameter of the core wire of the electrode.

2. Long arc length

Long Arc Length in Welding
Long Arc Length in Welding

If the distance between the tip of the electrode and the
base metal is more than the diameter of the core wire, it is
called ‘long arc’.

3. Short arc length

Short Arc Length in Welding
Short Arc Length in Welding

If the distance between the tip of the electrode and the base metal is less than the dia. of the core wire, it is called a ‘short arc’.

Effects of Long arc in Welding

  • A long arc makes a humming sound
  • The arc is unstable
  • Causes oxidation of the weld metal.
  • Fusion and penetration are poor.
  • Poor control of the molten metal.
  • Creates more spatters resulting in wastage of the electrode metal.

Effects of Short arc in Arc Welding

  • It makes a popping sound.
  • The electrode to melt slowly and try to freeze the job.
  • Higher metal deposition with narrow width bead.
  • Less spatters.
  • Fusion and penetration is less.

Effects of Normal arc in Arc Welding

  • A stable arc produces a steady sharp crackling sound
  • Electrode burns evenly.
  • Less spatters.
  • Correct fusion and penetration.
  • The size of metal deposition is correct.
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