- Flat file
- Hand file
- Square file
- Round file
- Half round file
- Triangular file
- Knife-edge file
1. Flat File
Flat files are of a rectangular cross section. The edges along the width of these files are parallel up to two-thirds of the length, and then they taper towards the point. The faces are double cut, and the edges single cut. These files are used for general purpose work. They are useful for filing and finishing external and internal surfaces.
2. Hand File
Hand files are similar to the flat files in their cross section. The edges along the width are parallel throughout the length. The faces are double cut. One edge is single cut whereas the other is safe edge. Because of the safe edge, they are useful for filing surfaces which are at right angles to surfaces already finished.
Flat files are general purpose files. They are available in all grades. Hand files are particularly useful for filling at right angles to a finished surface.
3. Square File
The square file is square in its cross section. It is used for filing square holes, internal square corners, rectangular openings, keyways and splines.
4. Round File
A round file is circular in its cross section. It is used for enlarging the circular holes and filing profiles with fillets.
5. Half Round File
A half round file is in the shape of a segment of a circle. It is used for filing internal curved surfaces.
6. Knife Edge File
A knife edge file has the cross section of a sharp triangles. It is used for filing narrow grooves and angles above 10 degree.
The above files have one third of their lengths tapered. They are available both single and double cuts.
7. Triangular File
A triangular file is of a triangular cross section. It is used for filing corners and angles which are more than 60 degree.
Square, round, half-round and triangular files are available in lengths of 100, 150, 200, 250, 300 and 400mm. These files are made in bastard, second cut and smooth grades.
Needle files are usually available in sets with assorted shapes. These types of files are used for delicate, light kinds of work. These files are available in bastard and smooth grade.
Shapes: The common shapes of needle files are shown below. The shapes are round edge, flat edge, flat taper, half round, triangular, square, round, knife, feather edge, crossing, barret and marking.
Nomenclature of needle files.
In addition to the common type of files, files are also available in a variety of shapes for ‘special’ applications. These are as follows.
- Riffler file
- Mill saw file
- Crossing file
- Barrette file
- Tinker’s file
- Rotary file
- Machine files for hand filing machine
1. Riffler file
These files are used for die-sinking, engraving and in silversmith’s work. They are made in different shapes and sizes and are made with standard cuts of teeth.
2. Mill saw file
Mill saw files are usually flat and have square or rounded edges. These are used for sharpening teeth of wood-working saws, and are available in single cut.
3. Crossing file
This file is used in the place of a half round file. Each side of the file has different curves. It is also known as ‘fish back’ file.
4. Barrette file
This file has a flat, triangular face with teeth on the wide face only. It is used for finishing sharp corners.
5. Tinker’s file
This file has a rectangular shape with teeth only at the bottom face. A handle is provided on the top. This file is used for finishing automobile bodies after tinkering.
6. Rotary file
These files are available with a round shank. They are driven by a special machine with a portable motor and flexible shaft. These are used in die-sinking and mould-making work.
7. Machine files for hand filing machine
Machine files are of double cut, having holes or projections to fix to the holder of the filing machine. The length and shape will vary according to the machine capacity. These files are suitable for filing the inner and outer surfaces, and are ideal for die-sinking and other tool-room work.