Lathe Cutting Tool Types

The tools used on lathes are classified as

  • Solid type tools
  • Brazed type tools
  • Inserted bits with holders
  • Throw-away type tools.

1. Solid Type Tools

Solid Type Tools
Solid Type Tools

solid bits of square, rectangular and round cross sections. Most of the lathe cutting tools are of solid type, and high carbon steel and high speed steel tools are used. The length and cross-section of the tool depend upon the capacity of the machine, the type of tool post and the nature of the operation.

2. Brazed Type Tools

Brazed Type Tools
Brazed Type Tools

These tools are made of two different metals. The cutting portions of these tools are good cutting tool materials, and the body of the tools does not possess any cutting ability and is tough. Tungsten carbide tools are mostly of the brazed type. Tungsten carbide bits of square, rectangular and triangular shape with proportionately less thickness are brazed to the tips of the shank metal The tips of the shank metal pieces have machined top surface according to the shape of the bit to accommodate the carbide bits. These tools are economical and give better rigidity to the tools than the inserted bits clamped in the tool-holders. This is applicable to high speed steel brazed tools also.

3. Inserted bits with Holders

Inserted Bits With Holders
Inserted Bits With Holders

Solid high speed steel tools are costly, hence they are sometimes used as inserted bits. These bits are small in sizes and inserted in the holes shaped according to the cross-section of the bit to be inserted. These holders are
held and clamped in the tool posts to carry out the operations. The disadvantage in these types of tools is that the rigidity of the tool is poor in the slot.

4. Throw-away Type Tools

Throw Away Type Tools
Throw Away Type Tools

Carbide-brazed tools, when blunt or broken, need grinding which is time absorbing and expensive. Hence they are used as throw-away inserts in mass production. Special tool-holders are needed, and the carbide bits of rectangular, square or triangular shapes are clamped in the seating faces machined in these types of special holders.

The seating faces are machined such that the rake and clearances needed for the cutting bits are automatically achieved when the bits are clamped. As these tools are to be operated at very high cutting speeds, the capacity of the machine must also be high and the rigidity of the machine must be good as well.

Kinds of lathe cutting tools

The different types of lathe cutting tools are distinguished
by the shape of the cutting edge and the operations which
they have to perform. Some of the lathe cutting tools are
listed here.

  • Facing tool
  • Knife edge tool
  • Roughing tool
  • Round nose finishing tool
  • Broad nose finishing tool
  • Chamfering tool
  • Undercutting tool
  • External threading tool
  • Parting off tool
  • Boring tool
  • Internal recessing tool
  • Internal threading tool
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