CNC Machines


Numerical control (NC) is a method employed for controlling the motions of a machine tool slide and its auxiliary functions with an input in the form of numerical data. A computer numerical control (CNC) is a microprocessor based system to store and process the data for the control of slide motions and auxiliary functions of the machine tools.

A modern NC machine tool is a microprocessor controlled and programmed using its own programming language. Various terms are used to describe the type of control such as NC, CNC, DNC.

Basic Configuration of CNC system

  • Central Processing Unit (CPU)
  • Servo control
  • Operator control panel
  • Machine control panel
  • Other peripheral devices.
  • Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)

Advantages of CNC Machines:-

  • High accuracy and repeatability.
  • Reduced inspection.
  • Easy to assembly and interchange ability.
  • Less scrap and rework.
  • Space savings.
  • Less material handling.
  • High flexibility for design changes.
  • Reducing tooling.
  • Better machine utilization.
  • Ability for high levels of integration such as:
    • Direct numerical control :DNC
    • Flexible manufacturing system : FMS
    • Adoptive control : AC
    • Computer aided design :CAD
    • Computer aided manufacturing : CAM
    • Computer integrated manufacture    : CIM

Application of CNC Machines

Here are few criteria to be decided on the introduction of CNC machines in any manufacturing activity.

  • Number of operations per component are many.
  • Complex of the operations carried out is high.
  • Size of batches are medium.
  • Repetation of batches is large.
  • Layout cost of batches is large.
  • Ratio of cutting time to non cutting time is low.
  • Variety of components to be produced more
  • Cost of special toolings involved is high.
  • Design changes are frequent.
  • Non uniform cutting condition are required.
  • Setup time and inspection time are high.
  • Number of dimensions to be maintained is large.
  • Precision involved in component is high

Areas of Application:

CNC system has been applied to all types of machines form simple sawing machines to complex machines to complex contour grinding machines. Major areas of applications are:

  • Metal cutting machines.
  • Metal farming machines.
  • Tool handling system.
  • Work handling system.
  • Inspection and quality control system.
  • Welding machines.
  • Heat treatment equipment.
  • Assembly, testing and dispatch equipment.

Leave a Comment

error: Content is protected !!